2018 Vaccination Policy Update – Bordetella and CIV

Pinnacle Pets New Vaccination Policy for Bordetella and Canine Influenza Vaccine

The American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA), a leader among veterinary medicine, has updated their Canine Vaccination Guidelines. In keeping with the AAHA guidelines, Pinnacle Pets Play & Stay is shifting our vaccination policy on the Bordetella Vaccine and the Canine Influenza Vaccine (CIV).

Pinnacle Pets has the best interest of your dog in mind when making decisions that could affect them. Historically, Pinnacle Pets policy (based on former recommendations) required Bordetella vaccination biannually. Our new policy for dogs entering our facility is annual Bordetella vaccination.  While Pinnacle Pets has always recommended the Canine Influenza Vaccine, it is now an annual requirement beginning December 1, 2018. Both doses of the influenza vaccine need to be given prior to admittance to Pinnacle Pets. Information supporting our decision for these changes are described below.

Bordetella (B. bronchiseptica)

The AAHA recommends a single internasal vaccination once a year where there is a risk of exposure to Bordetella.  (Association, Vaccination Recommendations – Shelter-Housed Dogs, 2018). The onset of immunity has shown to be as early as 48 to 72 hours after immunization.

There are three methods to administer the immunization. Intranasal, oral and injectable are options for veterinarians to immunize dogs against Bordetella. Only the intranasal route has been studied and shown to be effective in preventing Bordetella for 12-14 months with a single dose.  (Association, AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines Revised 2017, 2018). The duration of Immunity for the oral and injectable Bordetella vaccine has not been studied. (Association, AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines Revised 2017, 2018).

If your dog is diagnosed with an upper respiratory infection, they should not return to Pinnacle Pets for 2 weeks after the last sign of symptoms.

Canine Influenza (Dog flu)

The dog flu is highly contagious respiratory disease in dogs. There are two strains of the influenza virus. The strains include the H3N8 virus and the H3N2 virus (Prevention, 2018). Both canine influenza viruses are now considered widespread in dogs in the United States. (Prevention, 2018) There are 49 reported cases in Michigan alone (Development, 2018) and tracking data suggests that the cases of dog flu are spreading into northern Ohio as well as across the nation.

Anytime dogs come together in groups, there is a risk for disease (Development, 2018). Almost all dogs are susceptible to canine flu. The virus tends to spread among dogs in daycare, dog parks, dogs housed in kennels, and in shelters (Prevention, 2018).

Canine influenza virus is airborne and is spread through the air by infected dogs when they bark, cough or sneeze. It can also be spread by contact with contaminated objects. (Association A. V., 2018)

Signs of the dog flu include coughing, runny nose, fever, lethargy, eye discharge, and reduced appetite. However, some dogs will not show any signs of illness (Prevention, 2018).

While the Dog Flu vaccine is currently considered a noncore vaccine, the AAHA recommends vaccinating when dogs will be in contact with or housed with other dogs (Association A. A., AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines Revised 2017, 2018).

The flu vaccine is given in a two-part series. The first immunization should be done 4 weeks before encountering or housed together with other dogs.  The 2nd dose should occur 2-4 weeks after the initial dose. The vaccination should begin at least 4 weeks prior to exposure to other dogs (2 weeks between the initial vaccines plus 2 weeks to allow time for the immune system to develop). (Association A. A., AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines Revised 2017, 2018).

There are two flu vaccines available and we require the bivalent vaccine that protects against BOTH strains – H3N8 and H3N2.

Dogs infected with the dog flu are contagious to other dogs for up to 3-4 weeks after being infected (Medicine). If your dog is diagnosed with the dog flu they should not return to Pinnacle Pets for 4 weeks from the time of diagnosis.

 

Association, A. A. (2018, August 2). AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines Revised 2017. Retrieved from American Animal Hospital Association: https://www.aaha.org/guidelines/canine_vaccination_guidelines/overdue_over_twenty_weeks.aspx
Association, A. A. (2018, August 2). Vaccination Recommendations – Shelter-Housed Dogs. Retrieved from AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines (revised 2017): https://www.aaha.org/guidelines/canine_vaccination_guidelines/shelter_vaccination.aspx
Association, A. V. (2018). Canine Influenza. Retrieved from American Veterinary Medical Association: https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reference/Pages/Canine-Influenza-Backgrounder.aspx
Association, A. V. (2018). Canine Influenza FAQ: Questions, Answers, and Interim Guidelines. Retrieved from American Veterinary Medical Association: https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/FAQs/Pages/Control-of-Canine-Influenza-in-Dogs.aspx
Buonavoglia C., M. V. (2007, February 13). PubMed. Retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Research: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17296161
Development, D. o. (2018, August 2). Uptick in Canine Influenza Cases. Retrieved from Department of Agriculture & Rural Development: https://www.michigan.gov/mdard/0,4610,7-125-1572_28248-474320–,00.html
Medicine, U. o. (n.d.). For Veterinarians H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus Fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://hospitals.vetmed.ufl.edu/files/2017/05/FAQ-K9-Influenza.pdf
Prevention, C. f. (2018). Key Facts about Canine Influenza (Dog Flu). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/canineflu/keyfacts.html
Published 9.4.18